General Description

LevelS-1 / C-2
Discovered1988 / N. clavata
SynonymNephilatoxin 8 / NPTX 8
Molecular formulaC₂₉H₄₈N₈O₄
Precursor 1 [M+H]⁺573.38713
Precursor 2 [M+2H]²⁺287.19720
Precursor 3
Precursor HDX 1 [M(D₁₀)+D]⁺584.45617
Precursor HDX 2 [M(D₁₀)+2D]²⁺293.23486
Precursor HDX 3

Calculated MS/MS fragments


Additional MS/MS fragments


Recorded MS/MS spectra



Isolation and chemical characterization of a series of new spider toxin (nephilatoxins) in the venom of Joro spider, Nephila clavataT. Toki, T. Yasuhara, Y. Aramaki, K. Osawa, A. Miwa, N. Kawai, T. Nakajima, Biomed. Res. 1988, 9, 421-428N. clavataNephilatoxin 8 / NPTX 8Amino acid analysis, Activity-studiesLink
A new type of spider toxin, nephilatoxin, in the venom of the Joro spider, Nephila clavataT. Toki, T. Yasuhara, Y. Aramaki, N. Kawai, T. Nakajima, Biomed. Res. 1988, 9, 75-79N. clavataNephilatoxin 8Amino acid analysis, Activity-studiesLink
Total synthesis of Nephilatoxin-8 (NPTX-8), a new neurotoxin of Joro spider (Nephila clavata)M. Miyashita, M. Matsushita, H. Sato, T. Toki, T. Nakajima, H. Irie, Chemistry Letters 1993, 6, 929-932N. clavataNephilatoxin 8 / NPTX 8SynthesisLink
Polyamine toxins from spiders and waspsA. Schäfer, H. Benz, W. Fiedler, A. Guggisberg, S. Bienz, M. Hesse, The Alkaloids 1994, 45, 1-125N. clavataNPTX 8ReviewLink
Synthetic studies on nephilatoxins, new neurotoxins of Joro spider (Nephila clavata)M. Miyashita, Yuki Gosei Kagaku Kyokaishi 1996, 54, 846-858N. clavataNPTX 8ReviewLink
Detection of new spider toxins from a Nephilengys borbonica venom gland using on-line µ-column HPLC continuous flow (FRIT) FAB LC/MS and MS/MSY. Itagaki, T. Fujita, H. Naoki, T. Yasuhara, M. Andriantsiferana, T. Nakajima, Nat. Toxins 1997, 5, 1-13N. borbonicaNephilatoxin 8 / NPTX 8CIDLink
Mass spectrometric structure determination of spider toxins: Arginine-containing acylpolyamines from venoms of Brazilian garden spider Nephilengys cruentataM. S. Palma, Y. Itagaki, T. Fujita, M. Hisada, H. Naoki, T. Nakajima, Nat. Toxins 1997, 5, 47-57N. cruentataMS/MSLink
Structural characterization of a new acylpolyaminetoxin from the venom of Brazilian garden spider Nephilenys cruentataM. S. Palma, Y. Itagaki, T. Fujita, H. Naoki, T. Nakajima, Toxicon 1998, 36, 485-493N. cruentataNPTX 8Frit-FAB-MSLink
Acylpolyamines: Mass spectrometric analytical methods for Araneidae spider acylpolyaminesY. Itagaki , T. Nakajima , Toxin Rev. 2000, 19, 23-52div.NPTX 8ReviewLink
Synthesis and paralytic activities of squaryl amino acid-containing polyamine toxinsT. Shinada, Y. Nakagawa, K. Hayashi, G. Corzo, T. Nakajima, Y. Ohfune, Amino Acids 2003, 24, 293-301NPTX 8Activity-studiesLink
A natural combinatorial chemistry strategy in acylpolyamine toxins from Nephilinae orb-web spidersM. S. Palma, T. Nakajima, Toxin Rev. 2005, 24, 209-234div.NPTX 8LC-MSLink
An efficient and versatile synthesis of all structural types of acylpolyamine spider toxinsK. Nihei, M. J. Kato, T. Yamane, K. Konno, Tetrahedron 2006, 62, 8335-8350NPTX 8 (2)Synthesis, NMR, ESI-MS/MSLink
General synthesis of beta-alanine-containing spider polyamine toxins and discovery of Nephila polyamine toxins 1 and 8 as highly potent inhibitors of ionotropic glutamate receptorsS. Lucas, M. H. Poulsen, N. G. Norager, A. F. Barslund, T. B. Bach, A. S. Kristensen, K. Strømgaard, J. Med. Chem. 2012, 55, 10297-10301NPTX 8Synthesis, NMR, Activity-studiesLink
Structure-activity relationship study of spider polyamine toxins as inhibitor of ionotropic glutamate receptorsX.-F. Xiong, M. H. Poulsen, R. A. Hussein, N. G. Norager, K. Strømgaard, ChemMedChem 2014, 9, 2661-2670NPTX 8 (3)Synthesis of analogues, Activity-studiesLink

Spider species

Spider speciesFamilyDiscovered
Nephila clavataAraneidae1988 / T. Toki
Trichonephila inaurata madagascariensisAraneidae2005 / M. S. Palma
Nephilingis borbonicaAraneidae1997 / Y. Itagaki
Nephilingis cruentataAraneidae1998 / M. S. Palma