General Description

LevelS-1 / C-2
Discovered1996 / N. clavata
SynonymNephilatoxin 1 / NPTX 1
Molecular formulaC₂₉H₄₈N₈O₅
CAS119688-54-9 (S)
Precursor 1 [M+H]⁺589.38204
Precursor 2 [M+2H]²⁺295.19466
Precursor 3
Precursor HDX 1 [M(D₁₁)+D]⁺601.45736
Precursor HDX 2 [M(D₁₁)+2D]²⁺301.73546
Precursor HDX 3

Calculated MS/MS fragments


Additional MS/MS fragments


Recorded MS/MS spectra



Isolation and chemical characterization of a series of new spider toxin (nephilatoxins) in the venom of Joro spider, Nephila clavataT. Toki, T. Yasuhara, Y. Aramaki, K. Osawa, A. Miwa, N. Kawai, T. Nakajima, Biomed. Res. 1988, 9, 421-428N. clavataNephilatoxin 1 / NPTX 1Amino acid analysis, Activity-studies, 6-OH-IndAc…Link
Polyamine toxins from spiders and waspsA. Schäfer, H. Benz, W. Fiedler, A. Guggisberg, S. Bienz, M. Hesse, The Alkaloids 1994, 45, 1-125N. clavataNPTX 1ReviewLink
Facile Synthesis of 6-Hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid: on the structure of aromatic subunit of nephilatoxin 1-6T. Shinada, M. Miyachi, Y. Itagaki, H. Naoki, K. Yoshihara, T. Nakajima, Tetrahedron Lett. 1996, 37, 7099-7102N. clavataNPTX 1partial synthesis, NMRLink
Detection of new spider toxins from a Nephilengys borbonica venom gland using on-line µ-column HPLC continuous flow (FRIT) FAB LC/MS and MS/MSY. Itagaki, T. Fujita, H. Naoki, T. Yasuhara, M. Andriantsiferana, T. Nakajima, Nat. Toxins 1997, 5, 1-13N. borbonicaNephilatoxin 1 / NPTX 1CIDLink
Total synthesis of Nephilatoxin-1 (NPTX-1), a Joro spider (Nephila clavata) toxin having a 4-hydroxyindole nucleusM. Miyashita, H. Saito, M. Matsushita, M. Miyazawa, Y. Itagaki, T. Nakajima, Tetrahedron Lett. 1997, 38, 8297-8298N. clavataNPTX 1Synthesis, NMRLink
Mass spectrometric structure determination of spider toxins: Arginine-containing acylpolyamines from venoms of Brazilian garden spider Nephilengys cruentataM. S. Palma, Y. Itagaki, T. Fujita, M. Hisada, H. Naoki, T. Nakajima, Nat. Toxins 1997, 5, 47-57N. cruentataMS/MSLink
Structures of spider toxins: Hydroxyindole-3-acetylpolyamines and a new generalized structure of type-E compounds obtained from the venom of the Joro spider, Nephila clavataM. Hisada, T. Fujita, H. Naoki, Y. Itagaki, H. Irie, M. Miyashita, T. Nakajima, Toxicon 1998, 36, 1115-1125N. clavataNPTX 1CID (ns)Link
Structural characterization of a new acylpolyaminetoxin from the venom of Brazilian garden spider Nephilenys cruentataM. S. Palma, Y. Itagaki, T. Fujita, H. Naoki, T. Nakajima, Toxicon 1998, 36, 485-493N. cruentataNPTX 1Frit-FAB-MSLink
Acylpolyamines: Mass spectrometric analytical methods for Araneidae spider acylpolyaminesY. Itagaki , T. Nakajima , Toxin Rev. 2000, 19, 23-52div.NPTX 1ReviewLink
A natural combinatorial chemistry strategy in acylpolyamine toxins from Nephilinae orb-web spidersM. S. Palma, T. Nakajima, Toxin Rev. 2005, 24, 209-234div.NPTX 1LC-MSLink
An efficient and versatile synthesis of all structural types of acylpolyamine spider toxinsK. Nihei, M. J. Kato, T. Yamane, K. Konno, Tetrahedron 2006, 62, 8335-8350NPTX 1 (3)Synthesis, NMR, ESI-MS/MSLink
General synthesis of beta-alanine-containing spider polyamine toxins and discovery of Nephila polyamine toxins 1 and 8 as highly potent inhibitors of ionotropic glutamate receptorsS. Lucas, M. H. Poulsen, N. G. Norager, A. F. Barslund, T. B. Bach, A. S. Kristensen, K. Strømgaard, J. Med. Chem. 2012, 55, 10297-10301NPTX 1Synthesis, NMR, Activity-studiesLink
Structure-activity relationship study of spider polyamine toxins as inhibitor of ionotropic glutamate receptorsX.-F. Xiong, M. H. Poulsen, R. A. Hussein, N. G. Norager, K. Strømgaard, ChemMedChem 2014, 9, 2661-2670NPTX 1 (2)Synthesis of analogues, Activity-studiesLink

Spider species

Spider speciesFamilyDiscovered
Nephila clavataAraneidae1996 / T. Shinada
Nephilingis borbonicaAraneidae1997 / Y. Itagaki
Nephilingis cruentataAraneidae1997 / M. S. Palma