General Description

LevelS-1 / C-2
Discovered1987 / N. clavata
SynonymJSTX 3 / JSTX
Molecular formulaC₂₇H₄₇N₇O₆
Precursor 1 [M+H]⁺566.36606
Precursor 2 [M+2H]²⁺283.68667
Precursor 3
Precursor HDX 1 [M(D₁₁)+D]⁺578.44138
Precursor HDX 2 [M(D₁₁)+2D]²⁺290.22747
Precursor HDX 3

Calculated MS/MS fragments


Additional MS/MS fragments


Recorded MS/MS spectra



Chemical structure of Joro spider toxin (JSTX)Y. Aramaki, T. Yasuhara, K. Shimazaki, N.i Kawai, T. Nakajima, Biomed. Res. 1987, 8, 241-245N. clavataJSTX 3NMR (ns), Amino acid analysisLink
Synthesis of spider toxin (JSTX-3) and its analogsY. Hashimoto, Y. Endo, K. Shudo, Y. Aramaki, N. Kawai, T. Nakajima, Tetrahedron Letters 1987, 28, 3511-3514JSTX 3 (1)Synthesis, NMR, Activity-studiesLink
Newly synthesized analogues of the spider toxin block the crustacean glutamate receptorK. Shudo, Y. Endo, Y. Hashimoto, Y. Aramaki, T. Nakajima, N. Kawai, Neuroscience Research 1987, 5, 82-85N. clavataJSTX 3Activity-studiesLink
Isolation and characterization of spider toxin, JSTX and NSTX, in the venom of Nephila clavata and N. maculataY. Aramaki, T. Yasuhara, N. Kawai, T. Nakajima, Peptide Chemistry 1988, 163-166N. clavata & N. maculata
Ionidated Joro toxin (JSTX-3). Its structure and binding to the lobster neuromuscular synapseK. Hagiwara, Y. Aramaki, K. Shimazaki, N. Kawai, T. Nakajima, Chem. Pharm Bull. 1988, 36, 1233-1236iodinated JSTX 3Activity-studiesLink
Synthesis of neurotoxic Nephila spider venoms: NSTX-3 and JSTX-3D. M. Nason, V. J. Jasys, P. R. Kelbaugh, D. Philips, N. A. Saccomano, R. A. Volkmann, Tetrahedron Letters 1989, 30, 2337-2340JSTX 3Synthesis, NMRLink
A spider toxin (JSTX)-binding protein in rat hippocampusK. Shimazaki, K. Hagiwara, N. Kawai, T. Nakajima, Biomedical Research 1989, 10, 401-403JSTX 3Activity-studiesLink
Acylpolyamines mimic the action of Joro spider toxin (JSTX) on crustacean muscle glutamate receptorsT. Asami, H. Kagechika, Y. Hashimoto, K. Shudo, A. Miwa, N. Kawai, T. Nakajima, Biomedical Research 1989, 10, 185-189JSTXActivity-studiesLink
Zinc ion enhances the blocking potency of synthetic analogs of spider toxin (JSTX) on the glutamate receptorN. Kawai, A. Miwa, Y. Hashimoto, K. Shudo, T. Asami, T. Nakajima, Neuroscience Research 1989, 6, 358-362JSTX 3Activity-studiesLink
Argiopine, argiopinines, and pseudoargiopinines as glutamate receptor blockers in hippocampal neuronsN. I. Kiskin, O. A. Kryshtal, A. Y. Tsyndrenko, T. M. Volkova, E. V. Grishin, Neurophysiology 1990, 21, 525-532N. clavataJSTX 3Activity-studiesLink
Molecular structures of spider toxins (JSTX-1, 2, 3 and 4) in the venom of Nephila clavata L. KochT. Toki, T. Yasuhara, Y. Aramaki, Y. Hashimoto, K. Shudo, N. Kawai, T. Nakajima, Jpn. J. Sanit. Zool. 1990, 41, 9-14N. clavataJSTX 3Amino acid analysisLink
Spider toxins , NSTX and JSTX block synaptic transmission in insect CNSB. Hue, T. Piek, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C: Pharmacology, Toxicology & Endocrinology 1990, 95C, 229-232JSTX 3Activity-studiesLink
Arylamine spider toxins antagonize NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal slicesA. L. Mueller, B. C. Albensi, A. H. Ganong, L. S. Reynolds, H. Jackson, Synapse 1991, 9, 244-250JSTX 3Activity-studiesLink
Antropod toxins as leads for novel insecticides: An assessment of polyamine amides as glutamate antagonistsI. S. Blagbrough, P. T. H. Brackley, M. Bruce, B. W. Bycroft, A. J. Mather, S. Millington, H. L. Sudan, P. N. R. Usherwood, Toxicon 1992, 30, 303-322JSTX 3ReviewLink
Paralytic effect of spider toxin-related compounds on german cockroach, Blattella germanica L.T. Toki, A. Miwa, N. Kawai, K. Hagiwara, T. Nakajima, Biomedical Research 1992, 13, 53-58JSTX 3Activity-studiesLink
Finding of primitive polyamine toxins in the venom of a Joro spider, Nephila clavataT. Chiba, T. Akizawa, M. Matukawa, H. Pan-Hou, M. Yoshioka, Chem. Pharm. Bull 1994, 42, 1864-1869N. clavataJSTX 3FAB-MSLink
Polyamine toxins from spiders and waspsA. Schäfer, H. Benz, W. Fiedler, A. Guggisberg, S. Bienz, M. Hesse, The Alkaloids 1994, 45, 1-125N. clavataJSTX 3ReviewLink
Structural characterization of glutaminergic blocker spider toxins by high-energy collision charge-remote fragmentationsT. Fujita, Y. Itagaki, H. Naoki, T. Nakajima, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 1995, 9, 365-371JSTX 3CID [M+Na]⁺Link
An efficient synthesis of JSTX-3, a potent neurotoxin of Joro spider (Nephila clavata)M. Matsushita, T. Kanemura, S. Hatakeyama, H. Irie, T. Toki, M. Miyashita, Tetrahedron 1995, 51, 10687-10698JSTX 3Synthesis, NMRLink
Effects of a spider toxin and its analogue on glutamate-activated currents in the hippocampal CA1 neuron after ischemiaH. Tsubokawa, K. Oguro, T. Masuzawa, T. Nakaima, N. Kawai, Journal of Neurophysiology 1995, 74, 218-225JSTXActivity-studiesLink
Voltage-dependet blockage of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors by joro spider toxin in cultured rat hippocampal neuronsM. Iino, M. Koike, T. Isa, S. Ozawa, Journal of Physiology 1996, 496, 431-437JSTX 3Activity-studiesLink
Detection of new spider toxins from a Nephilengys borbonica venom gland using on-line µ-column HPLC continuous flow (FRIT) FAB LC/MS and MS/MSY. Itagaki, T. Fujita, H. Naoki, T. Yasuhara, M. Andriantsiferana, T. Nakajima, Nat. Toxins 1997, 5, 1-13N. borbonicaJSTX 3CIDLink
Mass spectrometric structure determination of spider toxins: Arginine-containing acylpolyamines from venoms of Brazilian garden spider Nephilengys cruentataM. S. Palma, Y. Itagaki, T. Fujita, M. Hisada, H. Naoki, T. Nakajima, Nat. Toxins 1997, 5, 47-57N. cruentataMS/MSLink
Diversity of Joro spider toxinsM. Yoshioka, 1997, 117, 700-714JSTX 3ReviewLink
Potent and voltage-dependent block by philanthotoxin-343 of neuronal nicotinic receptor/channels in PC12 cellsM. Liu, K. Nakazawa , K. Inoue, Y. Ohno, British Journal of Pharmacology 1997, 122, 379-385JSTX 3Activity-studiesLink
Structural characterization of a new acylpolyaminetoxin from the venom of Brazilian garden spider Nephilenys cruentataM. S. Palma, Y. Itagaki, T. Fujita, H. Naoki, T. Nakajima, Toxicon 1998, 36, 485-493N. cruentataJSTX 3Frit-FAB-MSLink
Acylpolyamines: Mass spectrometric analytical methods for Araneidae spider acylpolyaminesY. Itagaki , T. Nakajima , Toxin Rev. 2000, 19, 23-52div.JSTX 3ReviewLink
Long-term potentiation in the presence of NMDA receptor antagonist arylalkylamine spider toxinB. C. Albensi, N. Alasti, A. L. Mueller, Journal of Neuroscience Research 2000, 62, 177-185JSTX 3Activity-studiesLink
Contribution of Ca2+-permeable AMPA/KA receptors to glutamate-induced Ca2+ rise in embryonic lumbar motoneurons in situF. Metzger, A. Kulik, M. Sendtner, K. Ballanyi, Journal of Neurophysiology 2000, 83, 50-59JSTXActivity-studiesLink
Novel mechanism of blocking axonal Na+ channels by three macrocyclic polyamine analogues and two spider toxinsM. Yakehiro, Y. Furukawa, T. Koike, E. Kimura, T. Nakajima, K. Yamaoka, I. Seyama, British Journal of Pharmacology 2001, 132, 63-72JSTX 3Activity-studiesLink
Amino acid/spermine conjugates: Polyamine amides as potent spermidine uptake inhibitorsM. R. Burns, C. L. Carlson, S. M. Vanderwerf, J. R. Ziemer, R. S. Weeks, F. Cai, H. K. Webb, G. F. Graminski, J. Med. Chem. 2001, 44, 3632-3644JSTX 3Activity-studiesLink
Effect of two polyamine toxins on the bacterial porin OmpFA. Basle, A. H. Decour, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2001, 285, 550-554JSTXActivity-studiesLink
An efficient and versatile synthesis of acylpolyamine spider toxinsK. Nihei, M. J. Kato, T. Yamane, M. S. Palma, K. Konno, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2002, 12, 299-302JSTX 3SynthesisLink
A natural combinatorial chemistry strategy in acylpolyamine toxins from Nephilinae orb-web spidersM. S. Palma, T. Nakajima, Toxin Rev. 2005, 24, 209-234div.JSTX 3LC-MSLink
Spider polyamine toxinN. Kawai, Toxicon Review 2005, 24, 273-289JSTX 3ReviewLink
The antieptileptic activity of JSTX-3 is mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in human hippocampal neuronsS. D. Salamoni, J. C. da Costa, M. S. Palma, K. Konno, K. Nihei, N. A. Azambuja, E. P. Neto, G. T. Venturin, A. A. Tavares, D. S. de Abreu, R. V. Breda, Neuroreport 2005, 16, 1869-1873JSTX 3Activity-studiesLink
Antiepiletipc effect of acylpolyaminetoxin JSTX-3 on rat hippocampal CA1 neurons in vitroS. D. Salamoni, J. C. da Costa, M. S. Palma, K. Konno, K. Nihei, A. A. Tavares, D. S. de Abreu, G. T. Venturin, F. B. Cunha, R. M. de Oliveira, R. V. Breda, Brain Research 2005, 1048, 170-176JSTX 3Activity-studiesLink
The chelation of metal ions by the acylpolyamine toxins from the web-spider Nephilengys cruentata: effects in the intoxication/detoxification of preysM. F. Manzoli-Palma, N. Gobbi, M. S. Palma, Chemoecology 2006, 16, 203-208N. cruentataSynthesis, NMR, Activity-studiesLink
An efficient and versatile synthesis of all structural types of acylpolyamine spider toxinsK. Nihei, M. J. Kato, T. Yamane, K. Konno, Tetrahedron 2006, 62, 8335-8350JSTX 3 (1)Synthesis, NMR, ESI-MS/MSLink
General synthesis of beta-alanine-containing spider polyamine toxins and discovery of Nephila polyamine toxins 1 and 8 as highly potent inhibitors of ionotropic glutamate receptorsS. Lucas, M. H. Poulsen, N. G. Norager, A. F. Barslund, T. B. Bach, A. S. Kristensen, K. Strømgaard, J. Med. Chem. 2012, 55, 10297-10301JSTX 3Synthesis, NMR, Activity-studiesLink
Structure-activity relationship study of spider polyamine toxins as inhibitor of ionotropic glutamate receptorsX.-F. Xiong, M. H. Poulsen, R. A. Hussein, N. G. Norager, K. Strømgaard, ChemMedChem 2014, 9, 2661-2670JSTX 3 (1)Synthesis of analogues, Activity-studiesLink

Spider species

Spider speciesFamilyDiscovered
Nephila clavataAraneidae1987 / Y. Aramaki
Trichonephila inaurata madagascariensisAraneidae2005 / M. S. Palma
Nephila pilipesAraneidae1988 / Y. Aramaki
Nephilingis borbonicaAraneidae1997 / Y. Itagaki
Nephilingis cruentataAraneidae1997 / M. S. Palma